Our research on Italian e-cig retailers has revealed that the region around Rome is Italy’s most developed vape store market, with more than four times as many vape stores per inhabitant than the lowest-density areas. There may be scope for growth in Milan and Naples, given these cities have around half the vape store density of Rome. The vape store market is dominated by the leading vape store chains in the northeastern region. Elsewhere, stores are predominantly independently owned/branded. There is very little crossover between the online and vape store distribution channels.